Thermal decontamination of medical waste under the health-care waste includes all types of waste generated in: Hospitals, (city-wide, clinical specialist), dispensaries, clinics (adults, children, dental), ambulance stations, blood transfusion stations, long-term care for patients, pharmacies, pharmaceutical companies, health agencies, veterinary hospitals, health care facilities, institutions, court-med. expertise, laboratories, research institutes and medical schools, private clinics. Number of medical waste generated in health facilities, depend on the profile health facilities. In infectious TB hospitals and the actual volume of waste is much higher than the norms prescribed for general hospitals. Availability of health facilities in specialized units also increases the amount of factions of medical waste: for example, blood transfusion stations usually have elevated content of polymer waste. The problem of disposal of medical waste due to a number of factors that to consider when choosing a method, means and mode of disposal.
When choosing a method of waste disposal should be considered: – type of waste (biological fluids, organs, leftover food, dressings, clothes, bedding, packaging, medical disposable products, etc.) – form of contamination (bacteria, fungi, viruses, spores of bacilli) – bacterial resistance to physical and chemical agents, most common method of disposal of medical waste Russia still remains Chemical decontamination (disinfection with duly registered disinfectants) to disinfection of medical waste treatment choice, ensuring the destruction of all types of bacteria in the vegetative form of viruses. In the TB facilities, laboratories should provide an additional death causative agent of tuberculosis, a mycological health facilities – pathogens fungal diseases in surgical, trauma units – agents of anaerobic infections. Main disadvantages: incomplete destruction infective in the mass of medical waste; risks of environmental pollution by dumping chlorine disinfected waste; the formation of dioxins from waste incineration treated disinfectants, the unit cost of disinfectants (per ton of waste), as well as the cost of preventing potential environmental damage costs are higher than those for other methods of decontamination. WHO recommends a shift from the use of technologies related to chemical disinfection. Optimal technology for disposal of medical waste suggested as thermal treatment.
Combustion (incineration). In Currently, the EU Directive on the incineration of waste from the city 12.04.00 2000/76/CE. WHO requires: a ban on burning materials containing chlorine (containers for blood, intravenous catheters, plates, etc.) or heavy metals such as mercury (thermometers); preheating of waste incineration at t 800 C and above; sorting. Installation for thermal treatment of waste incinerator is equipped with a camera dizhiganiya flue gases and gas cleaning system. Domestic incineration (disposal) of medical waste – Incinerator IN-50 (Development Joint Stock Company 'Tourmaline', St. Petersburg). The main types of waste to be destroyed: solid, liquid, pasty, chemical, medical, pharmaceutical production wastes, biological. Performance settings – from 40 to 5000kg / h. Small incinerators IN-50.02K capacity 20-40 kg / h are placed in a 20-foot shipping containers. Today, volume destruction (disposal) of hazardous and extremely hazardous wastes health facilities is negligible compared to the real way. Russian law does not contain the concept of "medical waste", which is why "Dangerous goods" generally discarded in ordinary containers and taken to landfills. Need to streamline regulation of the formation of medical waste at the level of the Federation, to prohibit transfer of wastes of classes B, C in Class A waste refuse sterilization in hospitals, going to the centralized collection and disposal of hazardous medical waste.