A proximity card is a piece of the size of a driver’s license or a credit card. The card contains information required to activate and open doors to allow access of whom porta. The card alone does not have the ability to grant access, but that works in conjunction with other additional components. These components work together to provide security in some specific area of an establishment. The other elements of the system are a card reader, a panel of access control and a computer that keeps the system in operation. The complete system acts as a security officer who reviews credentials and allows authorized persons to enter many times wish to do so. The card has embedded a binary code (consisting of ones and zeros) specific to a particular sequence that makes the card a unique unit. Card reader recognizes the format of the code and then transfers it to the control panel, where scans to verify if the owner of the card is authorized to enter into this area.
The majority of the cards do not have any other code, although there are some that contain additional code. After receiving the data, the controller processes the code. The first step in this process is the analysis of the size of the string of numbers and also the format of the received code. If the code of conform to the specifications determined for the door, the controller compares it to the code set for access. If the card matches all these criteria, access is allowed and the door opens. It should be noted that the code can serve only for certain amount of accesses and between specific dates. If something in the sequence disagrees, the driver denied opening the door.
Some systems provide an answer to the owner of the card about why the door was not opened. Other systems prevent access without giving any explanation. For those who are responsible for the maintenance of the system of access control, this can be changed via the computer according to the needs. The application software which is accessed from the computer it will allow an authorized person to update the owner information, enable or disable the activation card, configure the access door hardware and provide the necessary reports on the use of the system. Proximity cards differ from common cards (which usually have a magnetic stripe on the back) in the fact that it is not necessary to make them come into contact with the sensor to gain access: just enough to bring closer them to the proximity readers so that the system is activated. Currently, companies, government agencies, schools, hospitals and other places that require high levels of protection employed proximity readers to prevent acts of vandalism or abuse access to critical information.